How can I make a random heat map of earth in Illustrator?

I want to make a heat map of an Earth-like planet for a poster just like the one on the picture below. (The map doesn’t need to follow Earth’s geography, spaces for land and ocean can be randomised). I tried using Photoshop to render clouds and create random shapes from there, then stacking layers on top with smaller shapes and different colours for each thermal threshold. But the colours did not blend in well with each other and it looked like a topography map rather than a heat map. Is there any way this can be done easily in Illustrator (Photoshop is also welcome but I only understand the basics).

Illustrator – paint/draw inside the drawing created from brush strokes, not shapes

I have been struggling with this for last few days and decided to get expert help here. I have drawing like below (original art is more complex) which was created using brush strokes (no built-in shape objects). I am trying to paint/draw inside using brush strokes just like “draw inside” feature of Illustrator. As it works for closed shapes so I thought making sure all lines are connected will suffice, but it didn’t.

Is it possible (and usually done) to create such grainy effect in Illustrator?

Sharing some illustrations from Handsomefrank agency. If you see them, all have dotted / grainy colors. I’ve highlighted the thing I want to ask about by yellow color. It’s not limited to one artist. For example, you can see this artist’s work also, where in some illustration you would find similar grains or grainy gradient … Read more

Does a scan need descreening if meant to be printed at the same size?

Most tutorials online related to scanning a document are dedicated to film scanning. If not, then it’s about saving old photos on a hard drive and viewing them on a screen.
For that second case, they all suggest using a Descreen application to get rid of the halftone moiré pattern that just looks terrible on screen when magnified.