TypeScript & React – one onChange Handler for multiple input fields

Say I have a form with multiple input fields. In normal ES6/React I would create a single method that all input fields would point their onChange handlers to. Something like this:

handleChange(e) {
    e.preventDefault();
    this.setState({[e.target.name]: e.target.value});
}

This helps in the case where you have a lot of form elements and don’t have to create a specific method to handle each of them.

Is this possible in TypeScript? Even if it is not type-safe?

Answers:

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Method 1

As answered in the comments, everything you can do in JavaScript is also valid TypeScript.

However, I guess you’re getting errors from the TypeScript compiler (depending on the compiler options you’ve set).

Assuming your component looks something like this:

interface ComponentProps { }
interface ComponentState {
  name: string
  address: string
}

class MyComponent extends React.Component<ComponentProps, ComponentState> {
  handleChange(e) {
    e.preventDefault()
    this.setState({ [e.target.name]: e.target.value })
  }
}

I’m getting this error:

== External: (30,19): error TS2345: Argument of type ‘{ [x: number]: any; }’ is not assignable to parameter of type ‘ComponentState’.

== External: Property ‘name’ is missing in type ‘{ [x: number]: any; }’.

And when using the noImplicitAny compiler option (which I like to use), this additional error:

== External: (28,16): error TS7006: Parameter ‘e’ implicitly has an ‘any’ type.

If you’re sure that your code is correct, you can silence these errors by explicitly casting the parameter for handleChange and the argument for setState

  handleChange(e: any) {
    e.preventDefault()
    this.setState({ [e.target.name]: e.target.value } as ComponentState)
  }

Method 2

I solved this problem like this:

handleChange = (field: string) => (event) => {
    this.setState({ [field]: event.target.value } as Pick<State, any>);
};

...

<Input onChange={this.handleChange('myField')} />

The Accepted answer didn’t work for me.

Method 3

import React, { useState } from 'react';

const Form = () => {
  const [inputValues, setInputValues] = useState<{ [x: string]: string }>()

  const handleFormSubmit = async (e: React.MouseEvent<HTMLElement>) => {
    e.preventDefault()
    const data = {
      name: inputValues?.name,
      email: inputValues?.email,
      phone: inputValues?.phone,
      income: inputValues?.name
    }

    const requestOptions = {
      method: 'POST',
      headers: { 'Content-Type': 'application/json' },
      body: JSON.stringify(data)
    };

    try {
      const response = await fetch('https://xyz/form-submit', requestOptions)
      const res = await response.json()
      console.log(res)
    } catch (error) {
      console.log(error)
    }
  }

  const handleInputChange = (e: React.FormEvent<HTMLInputElement>) => {
    const { name, value } = e.currentTarget
    setInputValues(prevState => ({ ...prevState, [name]: value }))
  }

  return (
    <div className="Form">
      <div className="form-wrapper">
        <h1>Demo Form for React</h1>
        <form className="form">
          <input 
            className="form-input"
            name="name" 
            value={inputValues?.name || ''} 
            onChange={handleInputChange} 
            placeholder="Your Name"
            type="text"
            data-testid="form-input-name"
          />
          <input 
            className="form-input"
            name="phone" 
            value={inputValues?.phone || ''} 
            onChange={handleInputChange} 
            placeholder="Your Phone" 
            type="tel"
            data-testid="form-input-phone"
          />
          <input 
            className="form-input" 
            name="email"
            value={inputValues?.email || ''} 
            onChange={handleInputChange} 
            placeholder="Your Email" 
            type="email"
            data-testid="form-input-email"
          />
          <input 
            className="form-input"
            name="income"
            value={inputValues?.income || ''} 
            onChange={handleInputChange} 
            placeholder="Your Annual Income" 
            type="number"
            data-testid="form-input-income"
          />
          <button 
            className='form-submit'
            data-testid="form-submit" 
            onClick={handleFormSubmit}
          >
            Submit
          </button>
        </form>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}

export default Form;

A sample Typescript form. It’s features:
  • A single onChange handler
  • One state object into which we can add as many key value pairs
    without the typescript compiler yelling at us.
  • Uses ES2020 optional chaining.
  • Has data-testid on the DOM elements incase you want to run a few unit test.
  • Should provide autocomplete for the input fields as per their types.
  • A form Submit function sample that uses the fetch api to make a post call to an end point.

Also, with this approach, you don’t have to use @ts-ignore, any or make changes to your tsconfig.

Please use it as your hearts desire.

Method 4

In the interface you have to shape that value of your state which is [e.target.name] and e.target.value type string or any as per your code.

interface formState {
  //it can be  (name: string address: string)
  [key: string]: string;
}

handleChange(e: any) {
    this.setState({
      [e.target.name]: e.target.value
    });
  }

For example
interface LoginFormState {
      //can be
      //email: string
      //password: string
      [key: string]: string;
    }
    interface Props {}

    class LoginForm extends React.Component<Props, LoginFormState> {
      constructor(props: Props) {
        super(props);
        this.state = {
          email: "",
          password: ""
        };
        this.handleChange = this.handleChange.bind(this);
      }
      handleChange(e: any) {
        this.setState({
          [e.target.name]: e.target.value
        });
        // console.log("email", this.state.email);
      }

Hope this help

Method 5

I think this approach is pretty simple to understand as well:

interface FormData {
    firstName?: string,
    lastName?: string,
}


const [form, setForm] = useState<FormData | null>(null);

And the JSX

<input onChange={(e) => setForm({...form, firstName: e.target.value})}  />
<input onChange={(e) => setForm({...form, lastName: e.target.value})}  />


All methods was sourced from stackoverflow.com or stackexchange.com, is licensed under cc by-sa 2.5, cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0

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