How to mount multiple directories on the same partition?

I am installing an SSD and would like to put / on the SSD and /home, /var, and /tmp on the HDD. My current distro is Kubuntu but I would not mind trying another distro if this procedure can be accomplished easier there. I have installed many different Linux OSes on multiple partitions, however I know of no installer that lets one mount multiple directories on a single partition. I would rather not use three separate partitions as particularly /home, /var, and /tmp are prone to large changes in size and it is not practical to allot each of them some arbitrary maximum.

How do I boot from ISO file stored on hard disk?

I know that I can create/burn bootable CD/DVD or live USB and can boot/install from it. But suppose I am currently running GNU/Linux and I’ve ISO file of another GNU/Linux that I want to install on my hard disk, then Can I directly boot from ISO from hard disk and try/install that GNU/Linux operating system?